biology final review

Chapter 15

Selective Breeding – Allowing only those animals with desired characteristics to produce the next generation.
Hybridization – Crossing dissimilar individuals to bring together the best of both organisms
Inbreeding – The continued breeding of individuals with similar characteristics

Chapter 16

Evolution – Process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms
Fossil – Preserved remains of ancient organisms
Artificial Selection – Selection by humans for breeding of useful traits from the natural variation among species.
Fitness – Ability of an individual to survive and reproduce
Adaptation – A change or the process of change by which an organism or species becomes better suited to its environment.
Biogeography – The branch of biology that deals with the geographical distribution of plants and animals.
Homologous Structures – Similar structure but different function – developed from same embryonic tissue
Analogous Structures – Same Function different structures
Vestigial Structures – organ that serves no useful function

Darwin went on a trip to the Galapagos on a ship called the Beagle. In the Galapagos, Darwin saw many different types of birds, these birds had different sized beaks. Darwin eventually concluded that these birds had all evolved from one species of bird that flew to the islands from the mainland a long time ago. Darwin’s ideas shocked many scientists, as they believed the animals we see now do not change and have looked the same for their entire existence. Darwin published a book called, “On the Origin of Species”, where Darwin outlined that much of this natural variation could be inherited or passed on to the next generation.

Chapter 17

Gene Pool – The combined genetic information of all the members of a particular population.
Allele Frequency – The number of times an allele occurs in a gene pool compared with the number of times other alleles occur.
Single-Gene Trait – Trait controlled by a single gene.
Polygenic Trait – Trait controlled by 2 or more genes.
Directional Selection – One end has higher fitness
Stabilizing Selection – The middle has highest fitness
Disruptive Selection – The middle has now fitness, the ends have highest fitness.
Genetic Drift – Change in a gene pool of a small population due to chance.
Bottleneck Effect – An event that shrinks a population to a smaller size. Only the traits of the individuals that survived will be passed on to next generations.
Founder Effect – A small group moving to a new area.
Genetic Equilibrium – no evolution
Hardy-Weinberg Principle - Evolution will not occur when the following conditions are met:
1.    Natural Selection does not occur
2.    The population is very large
3.    The population is isolated
4.    There are no mutations
5.    Mating is random

Sexual Selection – The natural selection arising through preference by one sex for certain characteristics in individuals of the other sex.
Species – A group of organisms that breed with one another and produce fertile offspring.
Speciation – formation of new species
Reproductive Isolation – separation of species or populations so that they cannot interbreed and produce fertile offspring
Behavioral Isolation – occurs when 2 populations are capable of interbreeding by have differences in courtship rituals or other type of behavior.
Geographical Isolation – 2 populations are separated by geographic barriers
Temporal Isolation – 2 or more species reproduce at different times
Molecular Clock – using amino acids to detect similarities in organisms.

There are two main sources of genetic variation; mutations and gene shuffling. Mutations occur naturally and are described as any change in a sequence of DNA. Good Mutations usually stick around while bad Mutations usually disappear after a generation. A population can shrink due to an earthquake, flood, fire, or a small group of organisms moving to a new area (this can be as little as 1 pregnant female). For a new species to form, organisms must undergo speciation. Speciation begins with an isolating mechanism (when populations become reproductively isolated), which leads to Reproductive Isolation, in turn forming a new species.

Chapter 18

Binomial Nomenclature – Classification system in which each species is assigned a two-part scientific name
Genus – Group of closely related species; the first part of the scientific name in binomial nomenclature
Systematics – the study of the diversity of life and the evolutionary relationships between organisms
Taxon – group or level of organization into which organisms are classified
Phylogeny – Study of evolutionary relationships among organisms
Clade – evolutionary branch of a cladogram that includes a single ancestor and all its decedents
Monophyletic Group – group the consists of a single ancestral species and all of its descendants and excludes any organisms that are not descended from that common ancestor
Cladogram – diagram depicting patterns of shared characteristics among species
Domain – A larger, more inclusive taxonomic category than a kingdom
Bacteria – domain of unicellular prokaryotes that have cell walls and contain peptidoglycan
Archaea – domain consisting of unicellular prokaryotes that have cell walls and don’t contain peptidoglycan

Chapter 19
Gradualism – The evolution of species by gradual accumulation of small genetic changes over a long period of time
Punctuated Equilibrium – A pattern of evolution in which long stable periods are interrupted by brief periods of more rapid change
Adaptive Radiation – Process by which a single species or small group of species evolves into several different forms that live in different ways
Convergent Evolution – Process by which unrelated organisms independently evolve similarities when adapting to similar environments
Coevolution – Process by which two species evolve in a response to changes in each other over time
Endosymbiotic Theory – Theory that proposes that eukaryotic cells formed from a symbiotic relationship between prokaryotic cells

taxon diagram

Chapter 20

Virus – A particle made of proteins, nucleic acids, and sometimes lipids that can replicate but only by infecting living cells
Capsid – Protein coast surrounding a virus
Bacteriophage – Virus that infects bacteria
Lytic Infection – Type of infection in which a virus enters a cell, makes copies of itself, and causes the cell to burst
Lysogenic Infection – Type of infection in which a virus embeds its DNA into the DNA of the host cell and is replicated along with the host cell
Prophage – Bacteriophage DNA that is embedded in the bacterial host’s DNA
Retrovirus – RNA virus that contains RNA as the genetic information
Prion – Protein particles that cause disease

Chapter 21

Pseudopod - A temporary, foot-like extension of a cell, used for locomotion or getting food
Cilium - a hairlike projection from the surface of a cell
Flagellum - a long, whiplike structure that helps a cell to move
Spore - in prokaryotes, protists, and fungi, any variety of thick-walled life cycle stages capable of surviving unfavorable conditions
Conjugation - process in which paramecia and some prokaryotes exchange genetic information
Alternation of generations - process in which many algae switch back and forth between haploid and diploid stages of their life cycles
Sporangium - spore capsule in which haploid spores are produced by meiosis
Algal bloom - increase in the amount of algae and other producers that results from a large input of a limiting
Food vacuole - small cavity in the cytoplasm of protists that temporarily stores food
Gullet - indentation in one side of a ciliate that allows food to enter the cell
Plasmodium - parasitic protozoan of the genus Plasmodium that causes malaria in humans
Chitin - complex carbohydrate that makes up the cell walls of fungi; also found in the external skeletons of insects
Hypha - any of the threadlike filaments forming the mycelium of a fungus
Fruiting Body - slender reproductive structure that produces spores and is found in some fungus like protists; reproductive structure of fungus that develops from a mycelium
Mycelium - densely branched network of the hyphae of a fungus
Lichen - symbiotic association between a fungus and a photosynthetic organism
Mycorrhizae - symbiotic relationships between fungal hyphae and plant roots.

Digestive System
Diagram of Digestive System
Excretory System
Diagram of Excretory System
Nervous System
Diagram of Nervous System
Heart (Circulatory System)
Diagram of Heart
Respiratory System
Diagram of Respiratory System
Lymphatic System
Diagram of Lymphatic System

Benjamin Boczulak - 2016